Crossing lines: Art & traffic safety in Montreal

A city worker puts the finishing touches on a crosswalk painted in a 3-dimensional style for a pilot project in the Montreal borough of Outremont on 10 July 2018. (Ryan Remiorz/Canadian Press)

 

by Graham Larkin

On Monday I’ll be talking on CBC Radio about a crosswalk in Montreal’s Outremont that looks like it’s levitating above the surface of the street.

Since you need a visual to really grasp the concept, I’m writing this post largely as a way to show listeners what we’re talking about. It begins with examples of existing Fake 3D crosswalks, and explains why this particular intervention is probably a bad idea. But not all such stunt work should be dismissed as frivolous. I close with a nod to Montreal’s decades-long tradition of urban critique that often involves paint.

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But first, the news of the day … such as it is.

When the CBC first approached me about the Outremont story I thought to myself: “But it’s not even news!” The Fake 3D Crosswalk meme went viral years ago, with this photo of two merry pranksters on a street that turns out to be somewhere in Kyrgyzstan, according to this Reddit post of March 2014.

It’s a powerful image, not least because of the approximate alignment of the fake shadows with the shadows cast by the boys and the paint cans.

Here, from recent years, are some other examples of levitating crosswalks from around the world. Many announce themselves with the grabby headline: “[insert country here]’s First 3D Crosswalk!”

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Those photos allow you to grasp the basic Fake 3D Crosswalk concept.  By virtue of an anamorphic one-point perspective, the levitating-blocks effect should lock in at the right viewer height and distance. While it’s hard to gauge the real-life efficacy of the illusion from a stable, monocular, and invariably optimized point of view, it seems like most of these illusions could  work briefly from the driver’s perspective, if you’re coming at it from the right direction. I suspect they work a lot better in photographs than in real life.

CBC notes that the proposed Outremont crosswalk has a $3,000 price tag, which is up to 15 times the cost of a regular crosswalk. That fact alone should give us pause, but there are plenty more reasons to be skeptical of the initiative, including maintenance cost, all-conditions visibility, and the basic question of whether they will actually slow motor vehicles. The CBC article quotes Westmount active mobility advocate Daniel Lambert as saying that serious protection entails “more than these kinds of cosmetic, gimmicky things.” He sensibly proposes a zebra crossing with on-demand flashing beacons as a proven measure for protecting vulnerable road users.

A good rule of thumb for any safe infrastructure is to emulate the systems used in in places like the Netherlands and Denmark, which have very high proportions of cyclists and pedestrians, yet half our rates of road violence. In those countries none of the street designers are in the business of fooling anyone. On the contrary, infrastructure for a wide range of mobility modes is designed with maximum legibility. In the Netherlands, for instance, every element of the street surface—the colour, the texture, the grade, the shape—makes it clear who goes where and when. And there’s minimal signage or other distraction. So people of all ages and abilities can easily stay in their designated spaces, and really focus on each other.

Pedestrian crossings in those leading countries—and in some North American cities, if one looks at recent progress in New York—are made safer by features like crossing distances shortened by bump-outs and pedestrian islands; on-demand flashing beacons that can be strung on wires (as Lambert suggests) or stuck on posts on mid-street islands; advance signals for active users at all busy intersections; and traffic-calming grade changes including speed bumps and pedestrian tables. When applied in combination with safe speed limits, these features make streets feel less like highways and more like places for people.

All cities would do well to invest in these proven safe systems.

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While it is not advisable to spend the traffic safety budget on fooling drivers with optical illusions, there can be real merit in painted interventions that make our streets less highway-like. Consider these two crossing designs for Dunedin City Council, New Zealand by Melbourne-based sidewalk artist Jenny McCracken.

McCracken’s art falls squarely into the “make walking fun” category—part of what urban designer Brent Toderian calls the City of Smiles—that includes John Cleese Silly Walks themed signage and murals in Norway and the Netherlands.

Returning to the meaner streets of Montreal, let’s have a look at the interventions of notorious street artist Peter ‘Roadsworth’ Gibson. As noted here,

Roadsworth began painting the streets of Montréal in the fall of 2001. Initially motivated by a desire for more bike paths in the city and a questioning of “car culture” in general, he continued to develop a language around street markings and other elements of the urban landscape using a primarily stencil based technique.

In the fall of 2004, Roadsworth was arrested for his nocturnal activities and charged with 53 counts of mischief. Despite the threat of heavy fines and a criminal record he received a relatively lenient sentence which he attributes in part to the public support he received subsequent to his arrest. Since that time, Roadsworth has received various commissions for his work and continues to be active in both visual art and music.

Here’s a sampling of Roadsworth’s  pedestrian crossings, including many designs from his rogue years:

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For more on Roadsworth’s street painting, which was largely a reaction to the chilling of free expression in the wake of the 9/11 disaster, see this trailer to Alan Kohl’s NFB documentary Roadsworth: Crossing the Line.

While not all scofflaw street painting falls into the category of tactical urbanism (broadly, “short-term action for long-term change“) Roadsworth’s unsanctioned hacking and humanizing of a car-centric traffic management lexicon seems to fit the bill. His persistent reclamation of street space for free expression is in the spirit of the famed Monde à Bicyclette activists of the 1970s. Their wildly popular die-ins, lane-paintings and other stunts—quite as impressive as similar demonstrations in Amsterdam, Copenhagen and San Francisco—raised awareness about cycling safety and created the pressure that made Montreal into North America’s premier cycling city.

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The radically democratic direct action of Bob Silverman, Chaire Morisette and Roadsworth gets people out onto the streets; it makes them more aware of their environment; and it allows them to see their city as a place that can be can be transformed by citizens demanding a safer, cleaner and more equitable world.

This tradition of refashioning our streets continues in the recent surge in tactical urbanism. Whether sanctioned or not, TU interventions generally involve some combination of paint and physical barriers.

Scroll down for some examples to explore and share.  😉

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Toronto needs real Vision Zero

Memorial near Kennedy Public School, Scarborough for 11-year-old Duncan Xu, who was fatally struck by a driver as he was walking home on Feb 27, 2018. (Photo : Jaren Kerr / Toronto Star)

What the Swedes call Vision Zero and the Dutch call Sustainable Safety is an evidence-based mobility paradigm that focuses on designing fail-safe streets. It is primarily about infrastructure improvements, but it also entails the regulation of vehicles and the setting of appropriate speed limits.

The Vision Zero paradigm is radically different from the old ‘Education, Enforcement and Engineering’ approach to road safety that still holds sway in North America, including cities like Toronto that are rebranding such programs as “Vision Zero.” A survey of traffic death and serious injury data indicates that a rigorous safe systems approach—real Vision Zero—is the only way to make our streets safe. Compared to Canada, Vision Zero countries like Sweden, Denmark and the Netherlands have about half the road violence and many times the rates of active mobility for people of all ages and abilities.

It’s misleading to brand any education measures, and most if not all enforcement measures, as Vision Zero. Research over many decades has proven that educational campaigns—whether watch for cars or watch for kids, wear a helmet or don’t text and drive—rarely result in the desired behavioural change, and they certainly don’t protect us from reckless drivers. The city of Toronto could save money by dispensing with frivolities like ‘suggested speed’ signage, and focusing instead on fail-safe and evidence-based approaches to road safety. Continue reading

Road violence and the English language

Orwell, again

My previous post included a long quotation from George Orwell, and an explanation of how fully he grasped the importance of safe speeds and collision-resistant infrastructure. Here are some excerpts from that remarkable 1946 statement.

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In the following brief post I will again quote Orwell at length. But today the subject is how we talk and write about traffic violence, and I’ll be quoting the opening section of his famous essay Politics and the English Language, also written in 1946.

Orwell writes:

Most people who bother with the matter at all would admit that the English language is in a bad way, but it is generally assumed that we cannot by conscious action do anything about it. Our civilization is decadent and our language—so the argument runs—must inevitably share in the general collapse. It follows that any struggle against the abuse of language is a sentimental archaism, like preferring candles to electric light or hansom cabs to aeroplanes. Underneath this lies the half-conscious belief that language is a natural growth and not an instrument which we shape for our own purposes. Continue reading

George Orwell on Traffic Safety

'Keep Death off the Road' campaign poster designed by William Little and issued by the Ministry of Transport, Great Britain, 1946.

William Little, ‘Keep Death off the Road’ poster issued by the Ministry of Transport, Great Britain, 1946.

Eric Arthur Blair (1903–1950), who used the pen name George Orwell, is one of the greatest English prose stylists and social justice critics of the 20th century. He is also an unsung hero of traffic safety advocacy.

After being declared unfit for passionately-desired military service during the Second World War, Orwell ultimately obtained war work with the BBC in 1941, supervising cultural broadcasts to India to counter Nazi propaganda.

Realizing that this well-meaning campaign was having little effect, he resigned in November 1943 to take up work as literary editor with the left-wing weekly Tribune. For the next three and a half years he would write a series of free-ranging columns under the title As I Please.

The 8 November 1946 column included reflections on a new propaganda effort—Britain’s Keep Death off the Roads campaign Continue reading

Edmonton Comes to its Senses around Pedestrian Hi-Viz Campaign

headsup

Yesterday I joined Edmontonians in criticizing a proposed defensive walking campaign, admonishing pedestrians to wear high-visibility colthing and to make eye contact with drivers. Here (for as long as it’s up) is the description of the proposed campaign, and here is how I was quoted in Clare Clancy’s report on the scheme in yesterday’s Edmonton Journal & Edmonton Sun: Continue reading

A Plea for Vision Zero in Ottawa

crash-collision-fatal-cyclist-dead-scene-laurier-lyon

Today 23-year-old Nusrat Jahan was slain on the streets of Ottawa, where I live. She and her bike went under the wheels of a truck at the intersection of Laurier and Lyon. Both streets have nominally protected bike lanes. These days I cycle four days a week to a building on that same block, but I generally avoid the Laurier bike lanes. They are too narrow, they’re constantly overrun by pedestrians and cars, and the crossings are a free-for-all of motorists and vulnerable users. And downtown they’re about the best we’ve got.

I regularly take the Lyon street lane, “protected” by intermittent floppy plastic bollards, on my way home. Two weeks ago I was knocked from that lane onto the sidewalk by an SUV making a right turn from Lyon to Gladstone. After completing the turn the driver paused a good distance away after hearing me bang against the vehicle, and as I got up with the help of another cyclists the vehicle simply drove off. Why wait around after hitting a cyclist in front of a witness? Continue reading

Welcome to Vision Zero Canada

A New Vision for Canada
Vision Zero in a Nutshell
Vision Zero vs. ‘Towards Zero’
Success to Date
Next Steps
Help Me to Help You


A New Vision for Canada

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Welcome to the web site of Vision Zero Canada, a registered nonprofit devoted to the elimination of death and serious injury on Canada’s roads. At time of writing (11 July 2016) this campaign is being run entirely by Graham Larkin, as announced in a December 2015 post on my Slow Ottawa web site. Before today its public face was a Twitter feed with 1350 followers, along with the safe speeds campaign Love 30 Canada that I launched in June 2016. This post provides a run-down of the Vision Zero Canada activity to date.


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Vision Zero in a Nutshell

Vision Zero combines ethically-rigorous traffic safety principles, including a commitment to the timely achievement of zero traffic deaths and serious injuries, with a holistic “Safe Systems” approach dedicated to achieving that goal. When safe systems are in place, serious injury and fatal crashes have a hard time penetrating the multiple shields of safe vehicles, safe roads, safe speeds, and safe drivers. While there are educational and enforcement components to these systems, the focus us largely on design that protects road users, including cyclists and pedestrians. Safe speeds are also crucial, as you can see from the information at our sister site Love 30 Canada.

A superb video from the Swedish government claims that Vision Zero boils down to the following principle. Continue reading